Since the first umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) in France in 1988, the growth of UCB banking to support the burgeoning interest in UCBT has been considerable. In 1991, Dr Pablo Rubinstein established the first unrelated UCB bank at the New York Blood Center supported by a pilot grant from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. Since that time, > 160 public UCB banks have been established worldwide and there are ∼730 000 UCB units available for public use.
The therapeutic potential of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) has been demonstrated by numerous clinical trials (1). Their differentiation potential into adipocytes, cartilages, and osteocytes support treatment of bone and cartilage diseases, their immune modulating role, increased therapeutic approaches for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, as well as the reduction of graft-versus-host responses (2-4).
Due to their capacity for self-renewal, their ability to differentiate into multiple lineages , and their immu-noregulatory and anti-inflammatory properties [2, 3], mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are promising tools for new cell and tissue engineering developments for re-generative medicine and autoimmune/inflammatory disorders.
Ligament, muscle, and tendon injuries produce pain, loss of function, instability, and secondary osteoarthritis [1, 2]. Traditionally, these injuries have been managed using activity modification; physical therapy; pharmacological agents, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, viscosupplementation, and narcotics; and surgical procedures when conservative management fails .
Interest in mesenchymal stem cells has been kindled in 1960s as the result of Friedenstein’s observations who reported that the bone marrow stroma can generate bone . It was later shown that bone marrow stromal cells have chondrogenic and adipogenic properties and a high ability for self-renewal .
Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common motor disorder in children , decreasing their quality of life (QoL) and level of self-sufficiency (SS). A meta-analysis of 30 out of 1366 papers describing this disability revealed that 3 in 4 CP patients were in pain, 1 in 2 had an intellectual disability, 1 in 3 could not walk, 1 in 3 had hip displacement, and 1 in 4 could not talk. In addition, 1 in 4 CP patients had epilepsy, 1 in 4 had a behaviour disorder, 1 in 4 had bladder control problems, 1 in 5 had a sleep disorder, 1 in 5 dribbled, 1 in 10 was blind, 1 in 15 was tube-fed, and 1 in 25 was deaf .
Tissue engineering (TE) has the aim to develop bio-artificial substitutes to repair or replace damaged tissues and organs (Alaminos et al. 2006; Philips et al. 2018). To generate bio-artificial tissues by TE, three basic elements are needed: cells, biomaterials and growth factors (Carriel et al. 2014).
Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantations (allo-HCT) are increasingly used as a treatment for management of hematologic malignancies, bone marrow failure syndromes, and inborn errors of metabolism . They are often complicated by graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), a common cause of non-relapse morbidity and mortality.